Table 1

Pre- and post-scores and effect sizes of all cognitive outcomesa

Training group (n = 15)Control group (n =15)Effect size,
r
PrePostPrePostP
Working memory, mean (s.d.)
    Digit span structured trial5.49 (0.92)6.30 (0.90)5.53 (0.90)5.79 (0.75)  0.420.017
    Digit span random trial5.23 (0.84)5.64 (0.85)5.01 (0.88)5.33 (0.69)  0.080.670
    Spatial span structured trial3.83 (1.05)3.98 (0.66)3.90 (0.70)4.04 (0.82)  0.010.959
    Spatial span random trial3.62 (0.91)3.74 (0.59)3.56 (0.75)3.74 (0.85)−0.050.777
General cognitive function
    Mini-Mental State Examination, mean (s.d.)26.00 (2.30)26.10 (2.00)25.93 (2.09)24.60 (1.84)  0.440.011
    ADAS-Cog, median (IQR)b11.00 (9.66–18.33)8.67 (6.33–15.33)13.00 (9.66–17.66)14.66 (13–15)−0.580.001
Episodic memory, mean (s.d.)
    Logical Memory Task 27.20 (8.20)12.47 (8.27)7.93 (7.05)7.73 (8.06)  0.510.003
    Paired Associates Learning task, median (IQR)3.00 (3–4)3.00 (3–3)3.00 (3–3)3.00 (2–4)−0.330.075
Executive function
    Verbal fluency, mean (s.d.)8.64 (2.73)8.00 (2.59)8.21 (2.52)c8.27 (2.43)−0.110.577
    Grammatical reasoning, mean (s.d.)6.00 (5.28)5.40 (4.40)4.73 (4.59)6.80 (5.72)−0.320.074
    Odd one out, mean (s.d.)10.20 (3.10)9.40 (3.42)7.60 (2.29)8.53 (3.02)−0.250.162
    Self ordered search, median (IQR)4.00 (4, 6)5.00 (4, 6)4.00 (3, 5)5.00 (4, 6)−0.280.121
    Trail making task part A, median (IQR)52 (33–115)66 (38.4 1–99.00)63.50 (44.75–112.25)c65.5 (41.25–96.25)−0.110.556
  • a. Scores for Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale – Cognitive section (ADAS-Cog), Paired Associates Learning task, self ordered search task and trail making task part A are shown as medians and interquartile ranges (IQR), as data were not normally distributed. The units are maximum scores for all tasks except trails A (time in seconds), fluency (maximum of 14), Logical Memory Task 2 (maximum of 32). Results of trail making task, part B are not reported due to floor effects at both time points. Results in bold are significant.

  • b. The ADAS-Cog is inversely scored, therefore higher scores represent more impairment.

  • c. n = 14.